Writing the results section
The purpose of the results section is to describe your findings as concisely and clearly as possible. In other words, be careful not to rehash your methods or discuss the meaning of your data in this section.
Organizing the results section
It often makes sense to lead with the findings that most directly address the question or problem you presented in the introduction, followed by results that are still relevant to your overall story, but secondary. One way to envision this type of organization is as an inverted pyramid (pdf), in which you start broadly with your most important findings (e.g., your model’s predictions) and then taper toward less significant results (e.g., validation data).
On the other hand, you might decide that readers need to know how your model works before they can grasp the predictions. In this case, you flip the pyramid right-side up again, i.e., start narrow with the model’s specifics and finish broadly with your major findings.
Whatever structure you choose, make sure each section and paragraph flows logically from one to the next. So, for example, although you may have completed your experiments in a certain chronological order, ask yourself if this is the best order for supporting the main message of your paper and getting readers to follow the story.
Common pitfalls to avoid
Including anything but your findings. To quote the catchphrase of the 1950s TV crime drama, Dragnet: “Just the facts, Ma’am.”
Including too many findings. Remember that the most effective scientific papers usually focus on a single story, message or bottom line. Thus, try to limit your results section as much as possible to those data that directly support the main point of your paper. If you find yourself trying to squeeze in many more, you might consider whether these additional findings should go into another paper.
- Repeating what is shown in the figures and tables. Your text should summarize what the figures and tables show, not go through them data point by data point.
- Losing the connection between the question/problem you posed in your introduction and the answer/solution: your results. In the best-written papers, this link is crystal clear.
- Failing to guide the reader. See the discussion below.
Guiding the reader
With the exception, perhaps, of Materials and Methods, the results section is the most detailed one in the scientific paper. So, while it’s true that this section should primarily present your findings, it’s also true that readers need transitions, summaries and other guideposts to make their way successfully through all your data. Below are three strategies for keeping the reader oriented.
- While you should avoid rehashing your methods in detail, do describe your overall approach briefly at the start of the results section, and at the beginning of each subsection, if needed.
- Offer readers a one-to-two sentence summary of your overall findings for each set of experiments or analyses, before launching into all the specifics.
- Describe briefly the logic behind performing experiments or analyses. For example: “Because A resulted in B, which is in the cascade of C (citation), we decided to see whether A was connected to C; therefore we subjected D to E.”*
Statements like these are not fluff; to fully understand your study, readers need a periodic reminder of where they are in the forest as they move through the trees. Otherwise, they can become hopelessly lost in all the details.
- Cetin, SA and DJ Hackam (2005) An approach to writing a scientific manuscript. J. Surgical Research 128: 165-167.
- Day, RA and B Gastel (2006) How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.
- *Neil, US (2007) How to write a scientific masterpiece. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 117(12): 3599-3602
- Ness, R. (2007) Writing science: The story’s the thing. Science Careers: http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_magazine/previous_issues/articles/2007_04_06/caredit.a0700047
Entry filed under: Parts of the paper.